Agroforestry

It is a land use system which enables the production of trees, crops and livestock together on a given unit of land.

N.B: Good agro-forestry trees are characterized in the following ways: -

  • Light open crown
  • Nitrogen fixing
  • Re-sprouts quickly after pruning
  • Deep tap root.

  • Shallow lateral roots
  • Resistant to drought
  • Fodder and forage provision

Near the nursery, a mother garden for Clonal coffee has been established for production of Clonal coffee seedlings.


THE HOMESTEAD
A small piece of land (5acres) has been developed as a homestead. The aim of the homestead is to show the visitors/farmers how a small scale farm can be utilized effectively when agro-forestry is practiced.

  • Here, you can find different crops planted together with good agro-forestry trees.

  • Water harvesting and conservation is also demonstrated.
  • Zero grazing of goats, cattle, pigs and rabbit rearing are also part of the activities in the homestead.

  

TREE NURSERY:
In the KHRUTC, a small tree Nursery has been established. Its aim is to raise seedling of trees and vegetables for planting in the centre and for sell to visitors and farmers. In this nursery, you can also find grafted fruit seedlings e.g. Avocado, passion fruits, etc.

In KHRUTC you will find almost all the common crops together with trees. Different types of agro-forestry systems have been established in the KHRUTC.

  • Wind breaks of trees (trees protect crops)
  • Trans-lines and terraces with trees which protect the land from soil erosion.
  • Hedge rows good agro-forestry trees and shrubs for production of fodder and mulch.
  • Shade trees in coffee and vanilla.
  • Improved fallows, planted with Sesbania, Tephrosia or Calliandra.

N.B An Orchard has also been established for fruit production in the near future.

THE ARBORETUM:
The Arboretum is a kind of achieve for trees. The purpose of the arboretum in KHRUTC is to show the performance and management of various tree species.

 

A SELECTION OF USEFUL AGROFORESTRY TREES

1.         CALLIANDRA CALOTHYRSUS (Klibwaambuzi)
Uses:                          soil improvement (N. fixing), fodder, fuel wood, Erosion
control, fallow improvement.
Where planted:          intercropped, woodlots, hedgerows, fallows
Establishment:           Direct sowing seedlings
Management:            Fast growing, copping.
Spacing:         -           6” plant to plant – Hedgerows for fodder production or on soil
bunds for conservation.

  • 1m x 1 m woodlot for firewood production.
  • Or otherwise, depending on purpose of establishment. 

2.         SESBANIA SESBAN (Muzimbandegeya / Mubimba)
Uses:                          Soil improvement (N. fixing), Fodder, Fuel wood, Erosion
control, Fallow improvement .
Where planted:          Intercropped, Wood lots, Hedgerows, Fallows.
Establishment:           Direct sowing, seedlings, wildings.
Management:            Fast growing, pruning, coppicing at early stages, short
rotation
Spacing:         -           0.5m x 0.5m in Fallows

  • 1m x 1m woodlot / firewood
  • Or otherwise depending on purpose of establishment.

3.         MAESOPSIS EMINII (Musizi)
Uses:                          Fuel wood, timber, agricultural shade – coffee and tea.
Where planted:          Intercropped in annual crops, coffee, tea, boundary planting.
Establishment:           Direct sowing, seedlings, wildings.
Management:            Side pruning, coppicing – at early stage, first growing.
Spacing:                     6metres x 6metres

4.         POLYSCIAS FULVA (Ssettaala)
Uses:                          Green leaf manure, fuel wood, medicine, mulch, timber, wood carvings.
Where planted:          In coffee, bananas, other annual crops
Establishment:           Seedlings, wildings
Management:            Fast growing
Spacing:                     6metres x 6metres

5.         CORDIA AFRICANA (Mukebu)
Uses:                          Timber, firewood, medicine (bark roots), mulch, bee forage,
soil improvement, agricultural shade.
Where planted:          Intercropped with annual crops, planted in coffee.
Establishment:           seedlings, wildings, copping.
Management:            Fairly fast growing, pollarding, pruning, coppicing.
Spacing:                     8metres x 10metres.

 

 

6.         AZADIRACHTA INDICA (Neem)
Uses:             see picture

Where planted:          pasture lands, boundaries, compound
Establishment:           Direct showing, seedlings, wildings, stumps.
Management:            lopping, pollarding.
Spacing:                     8metres x 8metres.
Remarks:       -           Reported to cure 40 different diseases.

  • Wood is resistant to termites and decay.
  • Grows better in semi and arid areas / low lands.

7.         MARKHAMIA LUTEA (Musambya)
Uses:                          Fuel wood, charcoal, timber, tool handles, poles, posts, bee
forage, mulch, soil conservation.
Where planted:          Boundaries, intercropped.
Establishment:           Direct sowing, seedlings, wildings, coppicing.
Management:            Pruning, pollarding, coppicing.
Spacing:                     4 x 8metres
Remarks:                   wood fairly termite resistant.

8. ALBIZIA SSP. (Albizia Chinensis, Albizia Coriaria)  Mugavu
Uses:                          Timber, fuel wood, charcoal, posts, poles, soil improvement,
resins and fodder.
Where planted:          Interplanted with annual crops, coffee, bananas, and
boundaries.
Establishment:           direct sowing, seedlings, wildings.
Management:            Pruning, pollarding, coppicing a chinesis – fast growing 
Spacing:                     6 x 8metres

  • or wider depending on purpose of establishment

Remarks         -          Good shade-coffee and bananas, cocoa and tea plantations

  • Wood is resistant to termite attacks.

9.         MELIA AZEDERACH (Lira)
Uses:                          see picture


Where Planted:         interplanted with crops.
Establishment:           Direct sowing, seedlings, wildings.
Management:            Pruning, pollarding, coppicing, fairly fast growing.
Spacing:                     5 x 5metres
Remarks:       -          Wood is termite resistant

  • Berries/seeds are extremely poisonous to human beings.

Poultry and livestock

10.       ACACIA (Obusaana)
Uses:                          Fuel wood, charcoal, fodder, wind break, nitrogen fixation, soil conservation.
Where planted:          Pasture lands, crop lands.
Establishment:           direct sowing, seedlings, wildings.
Spacing:                     6 x 8metres. 

11.       TERMINALIA BROWNII (Nkalati) 
Uses:                          Fuel wood, charcoal, timber, poles, mulch, carvings,
medicine, shade, posts, fodder.
Where planted:          Interplanted in crops, boundary, compounds, open lands.
Establishment:           Direct sowing, seedlings, wildings, coppicing.
Management:            Pollarding, coppicing, pruning.
Spacing:         -           6 x 8metres.
Remarks:       -           Wood is resistant to termites

  • Tree is drought resistant
  • Good potential for semi arid and arid areas regeneration

12.       USEFUL AGROFORESTRY TREES / FRUIT TREE
Cliricidia Sepium, Ficus SSP, Moringa Oleifera, Tamarindus Indica (Mukoge), Compretum Molle (Ndagi), Sederera, Sedrata Alnus Acuminata, Temprosia Vogel, Morus Alba, Grevillea Robusta.

Fruit Trees:
Carcia Papaya (Papaali)
Psidium Guajava (Peera)
Avocado (Persea Americana)
Managifera Indica (Muyembe)
Sour sop (Kitaferi)
Jack fruit (Fene)
Oranges (Micungwa)
Loquat (Nsali)
Szygium cumini (Jambula)

SEASONAL CROPS GROWN IN THE TROPICAL LAND

NURSERIES

When young, many plants require extra care, so it is best to grow them in a special area-called a Nursery Bed.
It is a portion of land put a side for raising seedlings.

Advantages

  1. It is less expensive to sprout your own plants.
  2. You have a wider choice of varieties available.
  3. You grow healthy plants from healthy seeds.
  4. Seedlings are available at the time of cropping.
  1. Moveable
  2. Permanent sunken
  3. Permanent raised

Site Selection: this should be done carefully – following the aspects below:

  1. Protected from the wind
  2. not on a slope unless terraced
  3. Not heavily shaded under trees or buildings.
  4. Near the planting area
  5. Near a water source.
  1. Clear the place
  2. Take measurements, i.e. 1m x any length
  3. Dig it well and rake
  4. Fertilize the soil, i.e. 3m2 with one wheelbarrow of compost and 4 spades – full of sand.
  5. Mix the compost, sand and soil to make a 7cm layer.
  6. Water the bed after seed sowing.
  1. Mulch the seed bed
  2. Provide shade
  3. Water dawn and dusk, but avoid too frequent watering
  4. Thin properly to remove weak seedlings and throw them away.
  5. Pick weak seedlings and plant them in another Nursery.
  6. prick weak seedlings (toughening the plants) in preparation for transplanting, by gradually removing shade and reducing g the amount of water.
  1. Slows down photosynthesis
  2. encourages wilting
  3. Prevents adequate transport of Nutrients.
  1. Compacting and suffocation of roots.
  2. Creates an environment of dumping – off disease.
  3. Prevents transportation of Nutrients.
  4. Leaching of Nutrients from the soil.
  1. Seed decay
  2. Seedling rot
  3. Stem rot at the base